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About VINCI Dioxide
Discover Vinci dioxide (CIO2)

VINCI Dioxide a two component system is an innovative product to generate pure Chlorine Dioxide onsite.
Purity without any byproducts like chlorite and chlorates puts VINCI Dioxide as a frontrunner in most disinfection and sanitation applications where other chlorine dioxide products fail.
VINCI Dioxide is a very effective and remarkable biocide that can kill legionella plus a wide range of bacteria, fungus, moulds and other microbes.

CIO2 The chemistry

History :
Almost 200 years ago Sir Humphrey Day invented chlorine dioxide. He obtained the gas by means of a reaction of sulphuric acid with potassium chlorate. Researchers later found out that CIO2 and CI2 have properties in common. Thus CIO2 is a green-yellow gas too with a chlorine smell which in concentrated form is very irritating for the eyes, nose and throat. On the other hand both materials are completely different when it comes to physical and chemical properties. Although they both have a chlorine atom in their molecular structure.

Differences with chlorine

Maybe the biggest difference between CIO2 and CI2 is their respective behaviour in water. CIO2 is 10 x much more soluble in water than CI2 (3,01 gram/L at 25C). CIO2 does not hydrolise in a solution. This means that it behaves like a "real" dissolved gas and maintains its oxidation and biocide properties in a pH range from 4 to 10. CI2 on the other hand discociates in water and forms hypochlorine acid and bichlorine acid. Hypochlorine acid then becomes the primary biocide, but in case of a higher pH is transformed into the hypochloriation (OCL-). This hypochloriation has as a biocide only 1/20 till 1/300 of the strength of hypochlorine acid itself. Therefore chlorine is only an effective biocide in case of controlled pH (+- 7,4 - 7,6). The high degree of solubility of CIO2 not only occurs in water, but also in many organic substances, like oils, solvents, etc.. Besides it is as efficient at pH 4 as with pH 10.

Molecular properties / Oxidation

CIO2 is a small, volatile and very strong molecule which disinfects by means of oxidation and not by means of substitution like chlorine. Furthermore the oxidation strength of CIO2 is lower than the oxidation strength of chlorine, but the oxidation capacity is more than two times higher. This is VERY IMPORTANT ! Oxidation strength describes how strong an oxidant reacts with an oxidizable material. The stronger the oxidation strength, the higher the amount of oxidizable materials with which the reaction takes place. CIO2 is in comparison weaker. It has a lower oxidation potential than ozone, chlorine gas and hypo chlorine acid. BUT : the oxidation capacity depends on the number of electrons that are being exchanged during an oxidation-reduction reaction.

The chlorine atom in CIO2 has an oxidation level +4. Because of this CIO2 can take on five electrons during the process of reduction to chloride (Cl-). When we compare to chlorine CIO2 disposes of 263 % "available chlorine". This is 2,5 times the oxidation

capacity of chlorine. Because of this lower oxidation strength CIO2 is more selective than chlorine.

Chlorine is a stronger oxidant which will react with a larger number of chemicals, including ammonium. These properties reduce the effectiveness of chlorine as biocide. Because of the fact that CIO2 has a higher oxidation capacity than ozone or chlorine, less CIO2 is required for a residual concentration in the case of disinfection.

The properties of CIO2

Thanks to the specific physical and chemical properties of pure chlorine dioxide such as Vinci dioxide it is an ideal material for controlling microbiological contamination wherever it may occur: e.g. fluid decontamination, surface decontamination, spatial decontamination, . CIO2 already has a rich history as an efficient biocide : as well as a fluid or surface disinfectant, CIO2 has a very broad scope of application concerning drinking-water disinfection, waste water treatment, agri- and horticulture, cooling tower and cooling water systems. CIO2 is also known from the many large-scale airgas (wax) applications.

CIO2 behaves as a "real" gas in water - or other solutions. This can be compared to the behaviour of CO2 when it is dissolved in a can of soda. In a solution CIO2 keeps its original chemical structure and properties. This quality is very important not only for efficiency but also for safety when used. So CIO2 stays equally efficient in a fluid solution as in pure gasiform. Chlorine by contrast is an acid gas which dissociates in a hypo chlorine acid and a bi chlorine acid. Regarding the safety we find that CIO2 does not chlorize any organic material. There are no tri-halo-methanes or other possible carcinogen compounds generated as there are in the case of chlorine. Furthermore, thanks to its specific properties pure CIO2 such as Vinci dioxide can be kept safely in solution after generation until it is used.

Bio film

CIO2 is strongly soluble in water and in different organic substances. Because of its strong solubility CIO2 can push its way through some substances that protect particular micro organisms. This in contrast to many other biocides (e.g. chlorine). A strong example is the fact that in water many bacteria, particularly those with sporulating properties, are protected by means of a poly saccharide film (BIO FILM); chlorine cannot penetrate such films because of its ionic properties in water.

CIO2 penetrates the poly saccharide film

CIO2 however does penetrate the protective layer and kills the underlying harmful micro organisms. Thanks to this quality CIO2 is the ideal remover of BIO FILM (e.g. in drinking-water pipes and cooling towers). Because of this special quality CIO2 is therefore an obvious means for the removal or prevention of bio film or as disinfectant on different pathogen organisms (e.g. legionella). On the other hand CIO2 does not have any corrosive effect, is not pH or temperature dependant and is insensitive to the hardness of water. And in the case of user concentrations, in contrast to a lot of chlorine products, it does not cause any influence on taste or smell of the water. CIO2 when used as cooling water disinfectant in cooling towers has the additional advantage that because of the actual disappearance and appearance of BIO FILM the efficiency is increased and the energy consumption is being reduced. Because of the large solubility CIO2 can also be used in the oil industry where it can penetrate particular hydrocarbon layers and thus can oxidize contamination and bacteria that are protected by these above-mentioned structures.

Oxidation capacity

CIO2 has an oxidation capacity which is twice as strong as the capacity of chlorine. The oxidation strength on the other hand remains lower. Because of this lower oxidation strength CIO2 is more selective than chlorine. It will react to activated carbon compounds as they are in phenols and other active compounds, as e.g. sulphides, cyanides and reduced iron and manganese compounds. As a strong oxidator chlorine will react with more chemicals (e.g. ammonium). Therefore it loses a great deal of its capacity as a biocide.

Less harmful side effects

CIO2 does not need any special after treatment or does not have to be washed down from surfaces in the case of surface decontamination. CIO2 is degradable in a natural way, since it is a "rather radical" molecule. Like this a concentration of 750 ppm CIO2 disappears completely, without any special treatment, in a couple of hours. CIO2 does not leave any harmful and visible residues on the treated surfaces. Every CIO2 molecule, which is used, degrades to not particularly harmful sodium salts. In the case of Vinci dioxide this means a very small amount of sodium chlorites, sodium chlorides and sodium sulphates. Experiments have shown that the "microscopic" residues of salt that have been found afterwards (after a surface disinfection) were not at all irritating. The combination of all these positive properties have contributed to the USEPA decision in October 2001 to use CIO2 in the struggle against Bacillus anthracis in the buildings contaminated by anthrax.

CIO2 an effective biocide

The characteristic property of CIO2 to react through oxidation and not via substitution, turns this product into an excellent alternative for chlorine, especially when it comes to drinking-water disinfection. There is no forming of possible carcinogen halogenized by-products in the case of CIO2. CIO2 will neither form significant amounts of aldehydes, ketons, keton acids, etc.with organic components in water, which is the case with OZONE. (O3). The reaction of CIO2 with micro-organisms or other organic materials takes place in two steps. During the first phase of the reaction the CIO2 molecule takes on one electron and the chlorietion (CIO2-) is formed. During the second phase CIO2 takes on 4 more electrons and we get chloride (Cl-). The elimination mechanism of CIO2 is still not completely clear. Although it is sure that CIO2 kills microbes by penetrating the cell wall and prevents the essential protein formation. CIO2 is also more effective against viruses than chlorine and ozone. CIO2 is effective too against protozoa, growing profusely in the water, like e.g. Giardia, Lambia and Crytosporidium. They cause the respective giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis.

No construction of resistance

Because CIO2 is an oxidative biocide, micro-organisms can build up no resistance.

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